2. Moderate version is superior to strong and weak versions in that it can describe both interlingual and intralingual errors.
A. Word order: Lgs. often differ in their word order. In English verb immediately follows the subject and appears as the first word in the predicate while in Persian verb comes at the end of the sentence.
B. Tone: A change in pitch which affects the meaning is called Tone. For example, in English the word “ Ready?” with a rising pitch on the last syllable means “ Are you ready?” while “ Ready!” with rising pitch on both syllables means “ Be ready!”. This is also the case in Persian, of course not in the above example, in other examples.
C. The agreement (or correlation of forms) is not a clear grammatical signal in Persian as it is in English.
Hossein and his wife are in the room.
حسین و همسرش داخل اتاق هستند.
The laptop and the printer are on the desk.
لپ تاپ و كامپیوتر روی میز است.
Of course in many situations there is correspondence between two languages.
D. Reduced pronouns are only possible in Persian.
من رفتم. ________ رفتم.
E. Initially, proposition should be explained. It is the basic meaning which a sentence expresses. Propositions consist of a. sth which is talked about(argument) b. a predication which is made about the argument. A sentence may imply more then one proposition.
Sentence: Hossein’s friend, Ali, a TEFL graduate, is a futsal player.
Propositions: Hossein has a friend.
His name is Ali.
He has been a TEFL student.
F. Positive forms both in English and Persian are negated following a rule. This is universal.
G. Questions are present in both lgs.
4. CA generally provides methodologists and teachers with the what of teaching; i.e. selection, grading, and sequencing of the materials. Teachers can then find the how of teaching; i.e. based on the presented materials and personal experience, they can choose the best method fitting their situation. And about the translator, CA gives explanations about the differences between two lg. systems. Being aware of these differences, a translator can do his job more practically. For example, CA tells us مضارع اخباری in Persian can stand for both simple present and present progressive.
5. A basic distinction is drawn between interlingual and intralingual errors. Intralingual errors are classified as overgeneralizations, simplifications, developmental errors, induced errors, errors of avoidance, and errors of overproduction.All these errors illustrate the naturalness of their occurrence while attempting to communicate.