1. Richards defines overgeneralization as extension of language rules in inappropriate contexts. Unaware of some exceptions, a learner makes structures which do not follow their specific rules in that context. This is when a learner has ignored those exceptions, or restrictions. For example, a leaner may say ‘womans’ instead of ‘women’.
2. EA deals with collection of observable or empirical data. During this, the frequent errors are outlined so that they can be selected as more problematic items. Based on these frequent errors, it can be predicted that what items will be produces wrongly in a certain context.
3. Based on the learners’ age, it can be done directly or indirectly. For adult learners, it can be emphasized that errors are signs of success, that errors are necessary for any kind of learning, and that it is the errors which blaze the trail for successful learning. As for young learners, an indirect way is suitable. To do this, a happy and energetic atmosphere should be created in the classroom so that learners get confident enough to release their utterances even if wrongly. In a suppressive atmosphere, no normal learner dares to produce language because they think about its consequences.
4. Agreed. First, while EA only deals with productive skills, in performance analysis both receptive and productive skills are taken into account. It should be mentioned that performance means a person’s actual use of language. This use is whether to produce or to understand sentences.
Second, EA analyzes only systematic errors. This is while some errors may be due to other factors than lack of linguistic knowledge. These factors include lack of concentration, fatigue, excitement etc. Performance analysis also pays attention to these factors.
5. EA is helpful to teaching (pedagogy) process in that:
· The causes of learners’ errors can be revealed.
· Information on common difficulties in language learning is obtained. This contributes to teaching and preparation of teaching materials.
· A teacher should not be preoccupied with noticing errors in a way that he overlooks the successfully made utterances.
· A teacher should create an atmosphere in which all learners express themselves, even if in a wrong way. Because it is assumed that they should at least produce something.
7. In analysis of errors in isolation, it is attempted to attribute the cause of errors to mother tongue or target language. This is because no information about the related context is available. But as it was said other factors also lead to occurrence of errors (labeled as unsystematic errors).