1. Low-leveled students are provided with cues to produce meaningful utterances. This is usually done in presystematic and emergent stages.
2. Interlanguage is based on the theory that there is a “psychological structure latent in the brain” which is activated when one attemts to learn a second language. Larry Selinker referred to the phenomenon of “fossilization” to establish a psychology of second language learning.
3. Learner’s language should be compared with two things:
· Utterances in the native language to convey the same message made by learner
· Utterances in the TL to convey the same message made by the native speaker of that language.
4. Based on Richard’s classification, induced errors (those resulting from transter of training) are labeled as intralingual errors. Overgeneralizations are also a subclass of intralingual errors. Consequently, overgeneralization and transfer of training can be integrated as one.
Learning strategies and communication strategies are intertwined. Usually, communication strategies follow learning strategies: By picking up a certain learning strategy, a learner tries to communicate.
5. Corder used the term idiosyncratic dialect to connote the idea that the learner’s language is unique to a particular individual, that the rules of the learner’s language are peculiar to the language of that individual alone. Nemser stressed the successive approximation to the TL in his term approximative system. Here, the focus is on the different stages the language learner goes through as he acquires L2 competence.
7. By employing different strategies, learners formulate hypotheses on how to communicate. Testing these hypotheses and reaching conclusions, learners step towards other forecoming elements of language. The aforementioned process is resumed. This process remembers us of the scintific method of doing a research.
I. EA is so concerned with noticing errors that correct utterances go unnoticed. IA focuses on non-errors as well.
II. EA overemphasizes the production data. Language is not only speaking and writing, but also listening and reading. The comprehension of language is as important as production. IA views all four skills together.
III. EA fails to account for communication strategies while IA considers them and intoduces them as one of the processes affecting interlanguage.